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免疫系统是维持人体健康的关键,它是提供人体免受外来细菌入侵的一个保护系统(1,5)。免疫系统使我们免受感染和降低疾病的发生(2)。任何入侵人体的细菌,病毒,病原体或疾病都会被免疫系统处理,从而避免或减少这些感染对身体造成任何伤害(3)。我们的生活环境隐藏了无数的细菌,我们吸入的每一口气,我们喝的每一滴水,或者我们吃的每一口食物,都可能含有细菌(4)。所以,我们很受到细菌侵入的机率是很高的。什么原因导致有些人较容易受入侵细菌或病原体的感染?其中最大的关键就在于免疫系统的强弱。强大的免疫系统具有与这些细菌斗争,较弱的免疫系统则容易受到入侵的病原体感染。

免疫系统不是单一的器官(1,2)。免疫系统需要平衡才能达到最佳的运作(5)。健康的饮食和生活方式是健康免疫系统的关键(6)。营养辅助品是提高免疫系统的方式之一(6)。 β-葡聚糖是增强免疫系统的辅助品之一(7,8)。许多研究人员发现β-葡聚糖对健康的免疫系统有明显的作用。

β-葡聚糖被称为“生物反应调节物”,它是存在于酵母,真菌和海藻中细胞壁高度保守的结构组分(9,10,11,13)

β-葡聚糖是一种免疫调节物,有助于我们的免疫系统的发挥作用(11)。它有助于提高免疫系统的自然反应,从而对抗癌细胞(12)。 β-葡聚糖是免疫调节物,并不是免疫刺激物(11,12)。 β-葡聚糖能够调节或激活免疫系统,但不会过度刺激我们的免疫系统,这也是本产品的关键。

许多研究人员正在研究及发现β-葡聚糖具有许多健康益处,除了有助于免疫系统,在与某些药物搭配上,也能更有效的治疗疾病(13,14)

β-葡聚糖有很多不同的来源。葡聚糖的来源取决于该国拥有的自然资源,主要是有酵母,蘑菇,谷物或海藻(13,14)。结构上不同的β-葡聚糖有着不同的健康益处(15)。一些文献提到β-葡聚糖(特别是β-(1,3);(1,6) - 葡聚糖)在治疗癌症、病原体感染、高胆固醇血症和糖尿病等疾病中有良好的效益(12,15)。β-葡聚糖的作用机制涉是透过被人体辨识为是非自身分子来激活免疫系统(15)
参考:
1. The gut microbiome shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. June L. Round and Sarkis K. Mazmanian. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 May; 9(5): 313–323.
2. Control of intestinal homeostasis through crosstalk between natural killer T cells and the intestinal microbiota. Dowds CM, Blumberg RS, Zeissig S. Clin Immunol. 2015 Aug; 159(2):128-33.
3. Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function. Kim Ann Zimmermann. Live Science 2016 March 11; http://www.livescience.com/26579-immune-system.html.
4. The immune system in health and disease. Victor Tybulewicz. Mill Hill Essays. 2000.
5. Lymphatic Function and Immune Regulation in Health and Disease. Shan Liao and Timothy P. Padera. Lymphat Res Biol. 2013 Sep; 11(3): 136–143.
6. The immune system: a target for functional foods? Calder PC, Kew S. Br J Nutr. 2002 Nov; 88 Suppl 2:S165-77.
7. Effect of Immune-Enhancing Enteral Nutrition Enriched with or without Beta-Glucan on Immunomodulation in Critically Ill Patients. Lee JG, Kim YS, Lee YJ, Ahn HY, Kim M, Kim M, Cho MJ, Cho Y, Lee JH. Nutrients. 2016 June 2; 8(6).
8. Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system. Akramiene, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E. Medicina (Kaunas). 2007; 43(8):597-606.
9. Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1, 3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models. Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff GR, Xing PX, Cheung NK, Ross GD. J Immunol. 2004 Jul 15;173(2):797-806.
10. Beta-glucan, a "specific" biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). Yan J, Vetvicka V, Xia Y, Coxon A, Carroll MC, Mayadas TN, Ross GD. J Immunol. 1999 Sep 15; 163(6):3045-52.
11. Glucans as biological response modifiers. Novak M, Vetvicka V. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Mar; 9(1):67-75.
12. Beta-glucan functions as an adjuvant for monoclonal antibody immunotherapy by recruiting tumoricidal granulocytes as killer cells. Hong F, Hansen RD, Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Baran JT, Ostroff GR, Ross GD. Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 15; 63(24):9023-31.
13. Beta-glucans, history, and the present: immunomodulatory aspects and mechanisms of action. Novak M, Vetvicka V. J Immunotoxicol. 2008 Jan; 5(1):47-57.
14. Potential of the beta-glucans to enhance innate resistance to biological agents. Thompson IJ, Oyston PC, Williamson DE. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Mar; 8(3):339-52.
15. Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1-->3), (1-->6)-glucans. Chen J, Seviour R. Mycol Res. 2007 Jun; 111 (Pt 6):635-52.
16.

Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans. Julia J. Volman, Julian D. Ramakers, Jogchum Plat. Physiology & Behavior. 23 May 2008. 94(2), Pages 276–284.

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